The planet is currently undergoing what scientists are calling the sixth mass extinction. This tragic loss of biodiversity is largely caused by human activity through, amongst others, land use change, climate change, pollution, overexploitation and invasive alien species. States have sought to take action on this issue through implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), its protocols and targets, as well as other multilateral environmental agreements. Many have also undertaken a number of conservation efforts, including the establishment of parks, reserves, and protected areas and the mandating of environmental impact assessments. However, biodiversity loss continues, and it has become clear that the objectives of the CBD can only be met by instituting transformative economic, social, environmental, legislative, political and technological changes in a whole-of-society approach, one that protects and serves those who are most affected. This document highlights the key human rights obligations and responsibilities with respect to biodiversity-related agreements, policies, strategies and actions.